Most cities in Europe have alternative names in different languages. Some cities have also undergone name changes for political or other reasons. This article attempts to give all known alternative names for all major European cities. It also includes some smaller towns that are important because of their location or history.
For the purposes of this article, Europe includes Turkey, Cyprus and all the republics of the former Soviet Union. A number of important Mediterranean Basin cities are also included.
I absolutely love such lists, and this one seems thorough and accurate. Some interesting entries:
Chişinău: Chişinău (Moldovan/Romanian), Kešenev (Yiddish), Kischinew (German), Kishinjov – Кишинёв (Russian), Kīšīnāw (Arabic), Kišineu (Bulgarian), Kišiněv (Czech), Kišinjev (Serbian), Kišiňov (Slovak), Kisinyov (Hungarian), Kiszyniów (Polish), Kyšyniv (Ukrainian)
Cologne: Colonia (Italian, Spanish), Colónia (Portuguese), Keln (Serbian), Kelnas (Lithianian), Keulen (Dutch), Kjol’n (Russian, Ukrainian), Kolín nad Rýnem (Czech), Kolín nad Rýnom (Slovak), Kölle (Kölsch [local dialect]), Köln (Finnish, German, Turkish), Kolonía (Greek), Kolonia (Polish)
Geneva: Cenevre (Turkish), Ginebra (Catalan, Romanian, Spanish), Geneve (Finnish), Genève (French), Genf (German), Ginevra (Italian), Genevra (Romansh), Genewa (Polish), Genebra (Portuguese), Geneve / Genève (Dutch), Jinīf (Arabic), Yenévi (Greek), Ženeva (Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Lithuanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Ukrainian)
Mainz: Mohuč (Czech, Slovak), Mayence (French), Magonza (Italian), Moguncja (Polish), Mogúncia (Portuguese), Majnc (Serbian), Määnz (local dialect), Meenz (former local dialect)
Venice: al-Bunduqīya (Arabic), Venecija (Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian, Russian, Ukrainian), Venècia (Catalan), Benetke (Slovene), Benátky (Czech, Slovak), Venedig (Danish, German, Swedish), Venetië (Dutch), Venetsia (Finnish), Venise (French), Venetía (Greek), Velence (Hungarian), Venezia (Italian), Wenecja (Polish), Veneza (Portuguese), Veneţia (Romanian), Venecia (Spanish), Venedik (Turkish), Vinitsia (Yiddish)
Vienna: Beč (Croatian, Serbian), Bécs (Hungarian), Dunaj (Slovene), Fienna (Welsh), Vena (Russian, Ukrainian), Vīne (Latvian), Vídeň (Czech), Viedeň (Slovak), Viena (Catalan, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian), Vienna (Italian), Vienne (French), Viénni (Greek), Vin (Yiddish), Viyana (Turkish), Wenen (Dutch), Wiedeń (Polish), Wien (Finnish, German)
(Via vicente at Pepys’ Diary.)