I never gave much thought to the gingko, or ginkgo (the latter, unintuitive though it is, is apparently the preferred spelling); I had no idea it was the subject of a well-known Goethe poem or that it was so widespread. Everything you might want to know can be found at Cor Kwant’s obsessive gingko site, The Ginkgo Pages. In particular, I direct your attention to The name, a somewhat scattershot page with the names of the plant in various languages, not to mention that Goethe poem (at the bottom). Oh, and the site itself is available in five languages. (Via Frizzy Logic.)
A caveat (and I’m sure others could be made): the name page says
Ginkgo : from the Chinese (later also Japanese) word Ginkyo meaning “silver apricot” (gin=silver, kyo=apricot). This term is thought to come from a romanized version for the Chinese ideograph Yin Hsing (Xing).
Ginkyo is not a Chinese word at all; as the AHD says:
Probably from ginkoo, an artificial or mistaken Sino-Japanese reading of the Chinese characters for ginkgo : Japanese gin, silver (from Middle Chinese ngin) + Japanese koo, kyoo, apricot (from Middle Chinese).