When I was recently at the NYPL’s Russia Engages the World exhibit, I noticed a book by Dimitrie Cantemir (Kantemir), Voivode of Moldavia (1673–1723), identified on the label (and in the catalog) as Kniga sistema, ili Sostoianie mukhammedanskiia religii [A Book of Rules; or, The System of the Muhammedan Religion], St. Petersburg: Sanktpiterburgskaia Tipografiia, 1722. But the title page of the book itself didn’t say sistema (the modern Russian word) but systima. Now, it’s reasonable to represent the first vowel, the old Slavic letter izhitsa (the last item on this page), by i, which is its sound, but the second vowel was clearly i and not e, and the whole word was just as clearly borrowed directly from Greek σύστημα (pronounced sístima since the early Byzantine period). So what I’m hoping one of my learned Russian readers can tell me is: was Cantemir’s usage unique to him, or was the word first borrowed as sístima and then reborrowed (presumably from French) as sistéma? If the latter, when did the change take place? Dahl and Vasmer only give the modern version.