I went to the Donnell again and this time found fewer pickings—but I was glad to discover A.V. Fedorov’s Vvedenie v teoriyu perevoda [Introduction to the theory of translation] (Moskva, 1953) for 25 cents. As soon as I saw the date I knew what I would find, and sure enough, the Foreword begins: “Questions of translation, linked in the closest fashion on the one hand with the disciplines of scientific linguistics—general linguistics, lexicology, grammar, and the stylistics of separate languages, and on the other with the history and theory of literature and the wide field of historical and philosophical sciences, can be fruitfully decided only in the light and on the basis of the works of I.V. Stalin on linguistics.” Chapter One, after a quick couple of paragraphs of groundwork, gets down to business: a quote from Marx and Engels (“Language is as old as consciousness”), a quote from Lenin (“Language is the most valuable means of human intercourse [obshchenie]“), and an entire paragraph by the Great Leader and Teacher (language as tool—I can’t bring myself to translate the whole gobbet of verbiage). But the book isn’t valuable only as a curiosity; it’s got lots of bilingual passages, with detailed discussion of the problems involved. I just wonder how quickly a revised edition came out after Stalin died that very year.