I was trying to find an etymology for the Russian word люрик ‘little auk‘ when I went to that Wikipedia page and saw “The little auk or dovekie (Alle alle) is a small auk, the only member of the genus Alle.” I was struck by “dovekie” and went to the OED, where I found (entry from 1897):

dovekie, n.
Pronunciation: /ˈdʌvki/
Forms: Also doveca, dovekey, doveky.
Etymology: Scots diminutive of dove: compare lassikie, wifikie, or -ockie (which are of 3 syllables), and see dove n. 1c, dovey n. b.

An arctic bird, the Black Guillemot (Uria grylle). Also (and now normally), the little auk (Plautus alle).

1819 A. Fisher Jrnl. 18 June in Jrnl. Voy. Arctic Regions 1819–20 (1821) 27 Another species of diver was seen is called by the seamen, Dovekey.
1823 W. Scoresby Jrnl. Voy. Northern Whale-fishery 421 Colymbus Grylle—Tyste or Doveca.
1835 J. Ross Narr. Second Voy. North-west Passage liv. 693 The second dovekie of the season was seen.
1954 J. M. M. Fisher & R. M. Lockley Sea-birds i. 17 Among the auks the dovekie and the Brünnick’s guillemot from the north join the puffins, razorbills and guillemots in ocean wanderings.

There are no entries for lassikie, wifikie, or -ockie, so I don’t know how I’m supposed to compare them, and I don’t know what they mean by “which are of 3 syllables,” but never mind — what a charming word!

I never did find an etymology for люрик (it’s not in Vasmer), so if anybody knows anything, do share.


  1. Jen in Edinburgh says

    The DSL might help a bit – see wife, lass and -ock, which suggests that -ikie endings are a double diminutive, -ock + -ie

    I don’t know about the three syllables, except that it does feel a bit odd just to add the -kie without a linking -i- sound…

  2. Trond Engen says

    I think it means that -kie adds one syllable and -ockie adds two to a monosyllabic word.

  3. Trond Engen says

    Russian names for northern species could come from many sources. One of those is Norwegian. The stem element люр- might perhaps be borrowed from Norw. lyr-/ljor-, which forms e.g. ljore “smoke vent in roof; (arch.) hole in cloud cover” and its doublet lyre “small window; slit for air in thatching”. If so, the bird might have been named for the characteristic white spot on the belly. The European pollack is called lyr in Norwegian for similar reasons. But without attestation of a cognate birdname this is entirely speculative.

  4. an etymology for люрик

    Just post somewhere “possibly of a sound-imitative origin”, and the world will accept it and quote it without question.

  5. Just post somewhere

    Better yet, add it here.

    (TIL: Hesychius has σισίλαρος· πέρδιξ. Περγαῖοι “sisilaros: partridge, among the Pergaeans [of Perga]”.)

  6. January First-of-May says

    I never did find an etymology for люрик

    Dementyev et al. 1951 says “attested in Pallas 1811, probably vernacular; etymology unclear”. [Click on p. 119 for the start of the description.]

    My googling attempts found a few more places saying “etymology unclear” (этимология неясна) without context; the aforementioned description was by far the most detailed treatment that I could find. I’m not sure if anyone actually studied it (presumably post-1951). An onomatopoeic origin does not sound entirely implausible.

  7. You can hear it here. Whether or not you think it kinda sounds like it’s saying “люрик”, it’s not enough to support a sound-symbolic origin.

    BTW, Xerîb’s link mentions sea smew, i.e. a seagull; I wonder if it’s the origin for smew, a different seabird with an unexplained etymology. (Or, just call it “possibly sound-imitative” and be done with it.)

  8. Another odd name for the dovekie, once very common but now no longer much used (at least on this side of the Atlantic), is rotche or rotchie. According to the OED this is derived from Dutch rotge, itself of uncertain etymology:

    Apparently < Dutch rotge (although this is first attested later: see below), of uncertain origin; perhaps < a first element imitative of the call of the bird (see note) + a variant of -tje, diminutive suffix (compare the older form Middle Dutch, Dutch †-tgen, still current in the 17th cent.); or perhaps a specific use of rotje small child or animal (although this is first attested later (1738); < rot rat n.1 + -je); compare Dutch †rotje stormy petrel (1727). Compare also West Frisian rotsje little auk (19th cent. or earlier; also sé-rotsje (19th cent. or earlier; < sea n. + rotsje)).

    The name of the bird is given as Rotges by the Hamburg surgeon and naturalist F. Martens (Spitzbergische oder groenlandische Reise Beschreibung (1675) 61–2) as the name current among the sailors on his voyage to Spitsbergen (among whom the master at least was Frisian), with the statement that it is derived from the bird’s cry rottet tet. Compare Dutch (rare) †rottetetje (1750 in a Latin context), †rottetetje (1763 or earlier), †rotje (1766 or earlier), and †rottetje (1822), all denoting the little auk.

    There are a many variants in 19th-century sources: rodge, rotje, rotgee, rotch, ratch, roach …

  9. ruokki


    IPA(key): /ˈruo̯kːi/, [ˈruo̞̯kːi]
    Rhymes: -uokːi
    Syllabification: ruok‧ki

    Etymology 1

    Borrowed from Sami, compare Northern Sami ruokke.


    1. auk (birds of the family Alcidae)
    2. in plural (ruokit), the family Alcidae
    3. razorbill, Alca torda (type species of the family)

    Derived terms

    pikkuruokki, Alle alle (little auk / dovekie)
    siivetönruokki, Pinguinus impennis (great auk)

  10. Don’t forget the onomatopoeic word Lyra – the unstrument and the constellation! (I’m kidding).

    Well, in my idiolect of Russian -lyr- (⟨y⟩ for /ю, yu, ü/ etc) sounds more like a borrowing. Sound-imitative words usually are not Liquid-V-Liquid.
    But there is oj lyuli-lyuli in songs (is it related to lyul’ka “cradle”?) , sayings… in some book I saw lyulechki! in the sense бютюшки!

  11. I frequently mention here zinziver “mallow, titmouse” here (I see to just like this nest of words). And once soon after mentionign it I heard a three-syllable bird call which I was tempted to write transcribe as “-i-i-é-!” (we use /i/ in Russian when imitating high-pitched sounds, e.g. mosquitos). Or maybe some other sequences would work, but not all of them. I know this call, and I suspect it was exactly a great tit. I even found some recordings of them, with this song and dozens other songs too. But I don’t remember most of others while this one is familiar.

    Also we have a plenty of z-onomatopoeias like dzin (thin glass or a bell, cf. also zvyak) for high-pitched sounds Ginger words (zingiber) sound like a collection of those.

    Onomatopoeias are not hopeless, but for zinziver I know (1) the exact sourse (2) how Russian onomatopoeias work (3) what sort of sounds I hear from local birds.

  12. On the topic of Greek λάρος ‘gull’ and its possible onomatopoeic origin, I just thought I would note that there is a Hittite word lari(ya)- that Calvert Watkins (How to Kill a Dragon 1995: 141, note 16) interpreted as ‘gull’ (specifically, the black-headed gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus) in the following Hittite passage (probably in verse) to be recited during the course of a religious festival originating in the Hittite Old Kingdom (ca. 1650–1500 BCE):

    mān tīeštēš larīēš arunaš tuḫḫandat
    šeraššan nepiši šiunalieš wēškanta

    possibly to be interpreted as

    When the tīeštēš gulls(?) of the sea sobbed
    the divine ones above in heaven were shrieking

    (The meaning of tīeštēš is unknown.)

  13. Jen in Edinburgh says
  14. Trond Engen says


    Ork. 1795 Stat. Acc.1 VII. 547:
    The tyste or lyre, which last is a bird somewhat larger than a pigeon.

    That may just be the missing cognate.


    The lyre is a puffin, attested in Orkney since 1701. Certainly a close match for a dovekie.

    P.S. WP says, for the Little Auk, “Alle is the Sami name of the long-tailed duck; it is onomatopoeic and imitates the call of the drake duck.” I swear I didn’t look at it earlier.

  16. Alle is the Sami name of the long-tailed duck; it is onomatopoeic and imitates the call of the drake duck.



    Most likely onomatopoeic.

    IPA(key): /ˈɑlːi/, [ˈɑlːi]
    Rhymes: -ɑlːi
    Syllabification: al‧li



    1. long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis)

    From Wiki:

    K.E. Kivirikko on kirjannut seuraavia allin kansanomaisia nimiä: tunturialli (valkeapäinen koiras), tavallinen alli (ruskeapäinen koiras), isompialli, upseerialli, allisorsa.[6] Historiallisia nimiä ovat olleet tohtaja (Schroderus, 1637, Lönnrot 1861), jääsuorsa (Lencqvist, 1760, Ganander, 1787, Helenius, 1838), kirsisuorsa (Ganander, 1787, Sadelin, 1810, Lönnrot, 1861) ja myös kirsipartti, jokisuorsa, jääpurri, hankelo ja allitelkkä.[7]

    K.E. Kivirikko has recorded the following common names for the alli: tunturialli (white-headed male), ordinary alli (brown-headed male), isompialli, officer’s alli, allisorsa. [6] Historical names have included slipper (Schroderus, 1637, Lönnrot 1861), ice sow (Lencqvist, 1760, Ganander, 1787, Helenius, 1838), cherry sow (Ganander, 1787, Sadelin, 1810, Lönnrot, 1861) and also cherry partridge, river sow, ice purr, hankelo and allitelkkä.

    Translated with (free version)

    Herra Pystynen?

  17. Alle alle alle! Auk auk auk!

  18. David Marjanović says

    BTW, Xerîb’s link mentions sea smew, i.e. a seagull; I wonder if it’s the origin for smew, a different seabird with an unexplained etymology. (Or, just call it “possibly sound-imitative” and be done with it.)

    That looks like Möwe “gull”, which… is indeed thought to be sound-imitative, though I’m not sure why. Gulls don’t exactly meow.

  19. That may just be the missing cognate.

    This is very promising. I wonder how the vocalism of the North Germanic words and люрик (presumably -ик is diminutive) can be reconciled.

    Here is the entry for Icelandic líri in Ásgeir Blöndal Magnússon, Íslensk orðsifjabók (1989), with a quick and inadequate translation by me:

    líri k. † ‘tiltekinn sjófugl, líkl. ung skrofa’; sbr fær. líri ‘(feitur) skrofuungi’, hjaltl. líri (s.m.) og nno. lire kv. ‘skrofa; klunni’. Uppruni óviss. Tæpast sk. gr. leirós (Hesych.) ‘magur’ (F. Holthausen). Samkv. A. Torp hljóðgervingur og e.t.v. sk. físl. lirla og nno. lirla ‘hóa, syngja mjóróma’, sbr. að ísl. heitið skrofa og fær. skrápur, nno. skråp virðast í öndverðu eiga við hljóð fuglsins. Þó gætu merkingartilbrigði eins og ung skrofa, feitur skrofuungi og klunni e.t.v. bent til þess að upphafl. merk. væri fremur ‘mjúkur og linholda fugl’ og þá hugsanleg ættartengsl við nno. lise kv. ‘veðrahlé’, sæ. máll. lis’ ‘lina’, mhþ. līse ‘hægur’, fhþ. līso ‘hægt, rólega’ (nhþ. leise), sbr. einnig fe. líra ‘vöðvi, hold’ (< *līzan--) og e.t.v. ísl. lír (s.þ.). Allt óvíst.

    líri masc. (now archaic) ‘a certain seabird, prob. a young Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus)’; compare Faroese líri ‘(fat) Manx shearwater chick’, Shetland liri (id.) and Nynorsk lire fem. ‘Manx shearwater; klutz’. Origin uncertain. Hardly Greek λειρώς (Hesychius) ‘thin, wan (person)’ (F. Holthausen). According to A. Torp, an onomatopoeia and perhaps related to Old Icelandic lirla and Nynorsk lirla ‘call, sing in a thin voice’; compare the Icelandic term skrofa and Faroese skrápur, Nynorsk skråp, which seem originally to be related to the sound of the bird. However, variations in meaning such as ‘young Manx shearwater’, ‘fat young Manx shearwater’, and ‘klutz’ could perhaps indicate that the original meaning would rather be a ‘soft and weak bird’ and thus a possible connection to Nynorsk lise m. ‘storm shelter’, Swedish dialectal lis’ ‘soft, weak’, Middle High German līse ‘slow’, Old High German līso ‘slowly, calmly’ (Modern High German leise); compare also Old English lira ‘muscle, flesh’ (< *līzan-?) and perhaps Icelandic. lír ‘mild weather, thaw, warm wind’ (q.v.). All uncertain.

  20. Jen in Edinburgh says

    Well, I was just being silly about the unknown tīeštēš, but if I’ve accidentally said something useful I’m very glad!

  21. Just to be clear… English mew ‘gull’ (OE mæw, ON már, MLG meve (> ModHG Möwe) and English smew ‘the duck Mergellus albellus’ (cf. Zeelandic Flemish smie here, with some etymological speculation) are doubtless separate words.

  22. I was just being silly about the unknown tīeštēš

    Cal Watkins would have loved the joke! 😀

    Ásgeir Blöndal Magnússon in his etymological dictionary just has this to say about Icelandic þeista fem., þeisti masc. ‘black guillemot’ and related North Germanic words, the source of teistie: Nafn fuglsins er ef til vill reist á einskonar eftirhermu á gargi hans ‘The name of the bird is perhaps based on an imitation of its cry’. Similarly de Vries, p. 607, middle of column b.

  23. About onomatopoeias: it is true that many bird names do have some chirping or otherwise meaningful quality. Consider grackles. But the next observation would be that they are still diverse. So they still can have histories. It is etymology within some subset of funny sounds, but it is etymology.
    What, a good half of our language is this or that way funny/expressive.

  24. PlasticPaddy says

    It is perhaps too easy seeing patterns with l-vowel-r+ending, when you can drop the ending and change the vowel. English lark even fits this pattern, although not a seabird. I know you are just quoting a source, but I think the source should perhaps have been edited to say first that no good etymology exists and then give the speculation in a footnote or endnote.

  25. -ik is very common in names of birds that a Muscovite knows from books. Like puffins: tupik “puffin”, from the family of chistik-ish “alcidae”: blunt-ik and clean-ik. I can’t remember even one bird in Moscow with -ik:-) Many don’t have recognizable suffixes, some are -ets/-itsa, some are -ka.

    J1M’s link describes люрик’s areal. It includes Spitsbergen and “Мурман” (that is, “the Norman [coast]”) where they spend winters: both are areas of Russian-Norwegian language contact. It also includes some Arctic lands to east and west. Also люр does not sound as a good Russian onomatopoeia to me, but mayby it is different for Pomors. It sounds somewhat more natural in Germanic… Which is confirmed by all the words above.

    Looking for a foreign etymology for the Russian word is a good idea a priori.

  26. But of course -y- would be much better than -i- and I won’t be too surprised if the Russian word was inspired by ruokki:)

    After all they have mansikka, mustikka and we have zemlyanika, chernika, where -ika is an unquie berry suffix.

  27. What about люр “pollock (Pollachius pollachius)”? Surely that is imitative of the call of the pollock? 😀

    But seriously, I wonder if some of the many many LH readers who read Russian much more quickly than I do can ferret out an etymology for люр “pollock”? Perhaps it will be illuminating for люрик.

  28. Wow. Дребезги языка: словарь русских фоносемантических аномалий

    люнка мн. -и редупл. звукоподр. подз. диал. Слова для овец. Ср удм. люр-ляр “блеянье”, лир-люр “шум, гам”

    Drebezgs [1. “tinklings” 2. “smithereens”] of language: a dictionary of Russian phono-semantical anomalies.
    Svetlana Sergeevna Shli︠a︡khova · 2004
    lyunka pl -i redupl. onomatop. подз. dial. words for sheep. Cf. Udm. lʲur-lʲar “bleating”, lir-lʲur “noise”

  29. Trond Engen says

    Russian люр “pollock (Pollachius pollachius)”? I didn’t know that, and don’t read Russian, but that’s easy. Quoting myself:

    the bird might have been named for the characteristic white spot on the belly. The European pollack is called lyr in Norwegian for similar reasons.

  30. @Trond, good catch! (I’m ironizing, but it is actually great catch)

  31. There is also тюрлюрлюр said to be “an onomatopoeia for rustling silk”.
    But this one is French:)

  32. I see Trond Engen actually answered my question about the etymology люр at the beginning the thread. I should have paid more attention. Thanks, Trond Engen. It is attractive for люрик too.

  33. David Marjanović says

    fhþ. līso ‘hægt, rólega’ (nhþ. leise)

    …which is now the opposite of “loud”, BTW.

    Verner-wise the etymon is odd. I’d have expected initial stress ( > *s) on the noun and final stress ( > *z) on the adjective.

    Just to be clear… English mew ‘gull’ […] and English smew ‘the duck Mergellus albellus’ […] are doubtless separate words.

    I see no reason to think so. S mobile has done stranger things, male smews are black and white like a gull, and smews are mergansers – they eat fish.

  34. The Dictionary of Russian Dialects has only two entries for lyur- (in volume 17). I’ll translate them in full:
    Lyurba, -y, m. and f. “unkempt person”. Евоная баба такая люрба, стыдно в люди показаться (His woman is such a люрба it-s-a-shame in people to-apper). Йонав. Lithuanian SSR 1968.
    Lyurik. -a, m. [stress?]. A bird Alle alle L., lesser auk. Kamchatka, Menzbir.
    Menzbir “Birds of Russia, 1895:
    “The latter name is applied to this and related birds by Russian inhabitants of Kamchatka”

    Anikin in his Etymological Dictionary of Russian dialects of Siberia explains “люлька” (another word) in the sense of “small diver/loon” as a loan from Ob-Ugric (Khanty) lula (luli, lule with various diacritics) and hypothesises that люрик (for which he quotes the Russian Dialect Dictionary) can be somehow connected to it.
    E.g. *lyulik>lyurik. He object objects that люлька has a limited distribution and is poorly known even near Irtysh.
    Then suggests that maybe люрик is the evidence of formerly wider usage of люлька.
    Then suggests that Russians could borrow люрик from Nenets luл́л́i “(<Khanty?").
    …. whatever those characters mean.

    Anikin is looking from Siberia and can't find a good Siberain explanation for it, but he has some ideas.

    Kamchatka adds more posibilities as to where they could take it from (and yet does not exclude Norwegians, because Pomors sailed East after having met both the bird and Norsemen)

  35. Trond Engen says

    Xerib: [On Orc. lyre]: This is very promising. I wonder how the vocalism of the North Germanic words and люрик (presumably -ик is diminutive) can be reconciled.

    Not very well. I had forgotten last night the existence of Norw. lire “shearwater” (never mind the Faroese and Icelandic cognates), which shows that the vowel is i, not y/ju.

    But before letting it go, we should take a closer look at the etymology of the bird’s name. Grunnmanuskriptet (Norwegian lexicon per c. 1900) says:

    lire I. f.
    l. eit slag sjøfugl (puffinus anglorum) (sjl.; Strøm, Sdm b. l. 243), Å.
    2. keiveleg, usjåleg menneske (oftast skjemt.; jfr. grålire) (Snm). “Kolkjæft å lire, so fysst flire ‘tå me å de”, d.v.s. den som fyrst lær av oss tvo skal heita kolkjeft og lire (i ein leik der dei kappast um å få kvarandre til å læ), Å. Jfr. gn. líri m. i tyd. l. fær. líri m. og shet. liri, d.s. Truleg ljodord. T.

    “1. a species of seabird (Puffinus anglorum) […]
    2. clumsy, unseeming person (often jocular) […] Ref. ON líri m. in sense 1 Far. líri m. og Shet. liri, Id. Probaly onomatopoietic.

    “probably onomatopoietic”. We’ll look firmly away from that.

    One attractive connection is the verb lira:

    lira v.
    l. leda (seg) fram med småe vridingar; ganga på lur (etter); lura (seg til noko); stela seg; um lag lidra 3. (Rauland, Seljord i Tel; oftare i formi “leera” Seljord, Rauland i Tel, Hal). “Kattn leera seg på musi” (Tel);

    “1. move forward with small twists and turns; go stealthily (after); get something by stealth; […]”

    I read that the Manx' breakwater flies just above the surface of the water with a wriggling side-to-side movement.

    There’s also another word for movement through air:

    lyre IV. f. kast i ballspel (jfr. hentelyre) (Tr), Å, (So, “lyyr” Vesterålen, “liire” Roms), R. Jfr. sv. målf. lyra, lira, um bogen som ein ball eller kasta ting gjer i lufti. Lån frå sv.? T.

    “IV. f. throw in a ballgame […] (So, “lyyr” Vesterålen, “liire” Romsdal) Ref. Sw. dial. lyra, lira, of the arch made through the air by a ball or thrown object. Borrowed from Sw.?”

    Also lyrespel “ballgame”. (and Mod.Sw. lirare “ballplayer”?)

    I don’t find a further etymology, but there’s an ON hlýr “stern of a ship” that perhaps may have been used to describe the shape of the arch. If so, the y is original.

    The waters are muddled by what seems to be mutual contamination with several words, e.g.

    lyra v. “tell untrue stories”, presumably from lur “clever”.

    lera v. “wait stealthily, listen for something”.

    lidra v. “puzzle with small work”.

  36. “probably onomatopoietic”. We’ll look firmly away from that.

    Trond, it is because when you are clumsy and unseeming, your silks rustle: “turlurlur”. Like that. In French. It is obvious.
    Unseeming people rustle in French.

  37. BTW note the word from Lithuania, lyurba “unkempt person” above…

  38. Trond Engen says

    Norw. lurv m. “unkempt (literal) hair and (metonymic) person” lurv n. “shabby work ” lurve f. “shabby clothing, shabby woman”. Probably in ablaut relation to larv with similar meanings.

  39. Trond Engen says

    Oh, right. I meant to mention that Sc. dove-kie is a cognate formation of the name Dyveke.

  40. David Marjanović says

    And I meant to mention that…

    “Мурман” (that is, “the Norman [coast]”)

    …I had no idea!

  41. тюрлюрлюр

    Clearly some Irish influence.

  42. Trond Engen says

    Du. rotge ~ NSa. ruokke?

    This is very much jpystynen’s turf, but while we wait: I don’t think there’s a principled way to connect the two.

    If I read Sammalahti (1998) correctly, NSa. uo is from older *a or *ō, while *o > NSa. o. OTOH, NSa. -kk- seems not to be an outcome of native processes, which does indicate a substrate word or a borrowing taking place in a narrow window between PFS and PS, i.e some time BCE, when Sami was still spoken in southern Finland. The final -e seems to be from *-i (as opposed to -i < *-e). This adds up to preform *raki or *rōki. I find no Germanic candidates for that,

    Heikkilä (2014) doesn’t mention the word, but he has the similar ruokko n. “care, provision (for)” < PGmc. *rōkō (no ON form cited) and ruokkia v. “care, provide (for)” < PGmc. *rōkijana, ON rœkja. They don’t match semantically, but they do indicate that I’ve understood the phonology. Heikkilä implicitly dates *ō > *uo in the 2nd century BCE or so, which also supports my understanding of the timing.

    All this leads to nothing without Germanic cognates. It could still be Baltic or a substrate word.

    Aikio (2012) treats substrate words in Sami. Ruokke is not mentioned, but he does list other words with NSa. -uo- and with -kk- < *-k-, so the phonochronological window for borrowings with *-ō- to become -uo- was probably still open at least into the first centuriy CE.

    Maybe the Dutch word simply meant what it says on the package, “little rat”.

  43. I can’t remember even one bird in Moscow with -ik

    There are a few, to be sure: зяблик, крапивник, рябинник, рябчик, кулик, травник, гуменник, могильник, подорлик, кобчик, перепелятник, тетеревятник, тювик (OK, that one is way down south).

  44. juha, thank you!

    I think my formulation was somewhat misleading: I actually could not remember one, but I suspected there are some, including some that I know.

    In your list “the one that I know” is зяблик. I have seen them, but I am not good at remembering bird names. So I recognize them as a “familiar unnamed bird”, even though I once owned a wind-up metal zyáblik (and I firmly associate the name with it):)

    I know kulík (proverbs like “every kulík knows his swamp”. and some people with a surname Kulikóv and of course books about birds), but I have no idea if I ever saw them in Moscow and if they live here.
    I know ryábchik, that is, I know it they are game, people eat them.

    The rest are: names that (1) don’t sound entirely unfamiliar, but I am not sure (2) names thatr sound unfamiliar.

    I suspect that I have seen the name крапивник krapívnik, “nettle bird” (if we translate -ik with -bird). I even can remember someone’s avatar with one (“someone”s nickanme was “Troglodytes”), but I must have seen photos in Russian sources too, and they were subscribed. And I easily could have seen – or heard – them in Moscow without being able to recognize them: there are many small birds I don’t recognize:(

    Google offers news artciles like (on the city government’s site): “employees of Mosnature photographed a rare bird in [such and such] park” and says that крапивник has the status of protected (and endangered) bird. Also they say that Çalıkuşu (“Королёк – птичка певчая”, a popular novel) originally referred to крапивник (Troglodytes Troglodytes) and not to королёк (Regulus Regulus). Wiktionary says çalıkuşu is Regulus.
    Also they list two other names: oréshek “little nut” and podkorénnik (under-root-nik, under-root-er) .

  45. Morphologically krapivnik is a bit different story than lyul-ik (???-ik) and even chistick (clean-ik). It is [noun] – [adjectival -n-] – [-ik], such deadjectival-from-denominal words may mean “pertaining to [noun], associated with [noun]”.

    Unused – but derived regularly and with ease ad hoc when needed – adjective krapivnyj means the same as nettle in my “nettle bird”. Not the same kind of adjective as “clean”, it does not even need to be lexicalized.
    And addining -ik to it is also not the same (cf. *nettlebird and *cleanbird).

  46. тетеревятник too looked somewhat familiar… I googled it and now I see what was wrong: I know the name as a specifying part of a compound: yastreb-teterevyatnik. Same with perepelyatnik which I don’t know.

  47. Thank you drasvi and Trond Engen for looking into this further and then taking the time to write it up!

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